Dissertations Please find in the following dissertations supervised by the Institute of Management which are not been published in the book series mentioned below. 2016 Schulte Steinberg, Adrian (Björn Ambos): Thinking inside the box: An internal perspective on headquarters-subsidiary relations of multinational corporations Headquarters-subsidiary relations are essential for the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in contemporary business environments. While existing work has explored many facets of this relationship, a debate is emerging about the value of consideration of complexities that reside in headquarters-subsidiary relations. This dissertation explores these internal complexities, on an organizational and on an individual level. To do so, three self-standing studies are conducted. In the first study, complexities are studied on an organizational level. The study conceptually explores existing applications and future themes regarding the types of complexities that exist between headquarters and subsidiaries by applying an agency theory lens. The study finds that there is a need to establish the agency relationship between headquarters as principal and subsidiaries as agents more clearly. The second study stays on the organizational level and builds on this agency lens, and examines the management of complex headquarters-subsidiary relation through the use of socialization in relation to other controls, and finds that socialization reduces information asymmetries and goal conflicts between headquarters and subsidiaries, but that the reduction of goal conflicts is contingent upon other principals inside the MNC. The third study shifts attention to the individual level and examines the personality of managers inside subsidiaries. It finds that personality influences behavioral outcomes when headquarters mandates the adoption of organizational practices by its subsidiaries. Aside from theoretical as well as managerial contributions of the three individual studies, this dissertation delivers overarching contributions to academic research as well as managers. On a meta-level, it also enters into the discussion about benefits or costs associated with consideration versus disregard of complexities. Bekemeier, Sebastian (Günter Müller-Stewens): Strategic Leadership Competence: Konzeptualisierung und Erhebung einer Kernkompetenz von Führungskräften Over the past few years, the complexity of a firm’s environment and the velocity of social and political changes have increased dramatically. These circumstances have precipitated an increased demand for strategy and strategic leadership in corporations. The central topic of this research project is the individual foundations and requirements for current and future success. Therefore, during the project the construct of a so-called strategic leadership competence was conceptualized and fully developed. Based on a profound and holistic understanding of the concept of competencies, the strategic leadership competence was constructed and operationalized in a concrete model, the “Strategic Leadership Competence Wheel”. Besides an extensive literature research, the basis for this model was the author’s own empirical research. In particular, an international interview study was conducted and subsequently analyzed using a grounded theory approach and utilizing a contrast group design. This allowed the identification of the competencies which are a feature of successful strategic leaders. This construct was furthermore operationalized into a specific model, the “Strategic Leadership Competence Wheel”, consisting of nine competencies and the corresponding behavioral indicators. By providing deep insights into the nature of strategic leadership, the application of the model is an opportunity to deeply root strategy work into an organization, thereby adding real value to practice itself. Beckman, Peter (Günter Müller-Stewens): Corporate active ownership: a behavioral approach to understanding value creation in highly diversified multi-business firms This cumulative dissertation investigates value creation through corporate active ownership and its role in corporate strategy and the market for corporate control. Highly diversified and highly active owners, such as private equity firms and business groups, play an increasingly important role in the economy, yet their behavior contradicts central aspects of current theoretical models. The first article therefore draws on the behavioral theory of strategy to derive a new model of active ownership. This ‘outside view model’ suggests that highly diversified active owners’ breadth of experience gives them an advantage, relative to management, in discovering cognitively distant opportunities and that a broad and intense interaction with management is necessary to realize them, as they require a significant change in businesses’ shared cognitive representations. The model is tested using qualitative configurational pattern-matching against five cases of active ownership and shows strong support for the existence of the outside view model while not supporting the presently dominant control and specialized resource models. Hettich, Erwin (Günter Müller-Stewens): Collaborating and Competing in Multipartner Initiatives: A Study on the Emergence, Evolution and Dynamics of Interorganizational Strategy This Ph.D. thesis spotlights interorganizational strategy processes, which in the light of an increasingly complex, interconnected and dynamic environment have gained substantial relevance. How do interorganizational strategies emerge and evolve? What are the specific dynamics when strategy spans organizational boundaries, and why do some multipartner initiatives perform better than others? These are overarching questions that guide this investigation. This study draws on a sample of cases, interviews, and survey data. This study also builds on a rich database of secondary data. The empirical research setting is in the field of the currently emerging electric mobility sector. Schwenke, Markus (Markus Schwaninger): Management Tools for Strategizing: Opportunities and Challenges for Accepting and Implementing Dynamic Tools Management tools are widely used to support decision making in organizations. Organizations are exposed to many such tools that offer specific benefits. Once an organization has decided to apply a particular tool, it is common that the organization faces issues in implementing any tools, which causes management to request more research about management tool implementation and use. Current research provides only an incomplete understanding of the processes leading to the implementation and rejection of management tools. Moreover, only a few studies have considered the more complex, i.e. dynamic management tools which will be my research object in this thesis. The thesis addresses various shortcomings in management and strategy research, developing a framework of different conceptualizations of dynamics as they have been used in strategy research and draws on multiple data sources, such as publications, qualitative interviews, and collaborative workshops. 2015 Müller, Johanna (Günter Müller-Stewens): A Dynamic Approach to Strategic Change This dissertation addresses the roles and impact of time and adopts a dynamic perspective on strategic change. It is comprised of three separate but interrelated studies. The first study evaluates the existing body of strategic change research. One important finding is that the time concept has not been explicitly considered in many studies. Based on this finding, the second study adopts a conceptual approach to assess the multi-facet influences of the time concept in strategic change research. As a central outcome, this study highlights several key considerations for framing strategic change studies as temporal research. Building on these insights, the third study takes an empirical approach to examine changes in corporate strategy and structure over a longer time period. A European data set of multi-business firms from 2000 to 2010 is the basis for the empirical analyses. Specifically, this study shifts the focus from single to multiple changes by analyzing entire sequences of change in corporate strategy and structure. The findings of this study suggest that it is important that firms consider strategic changes as part of entire sequences of change rather than as isolated events. Oh, Lyndon J. (Tomi Laamanen): Complexity Attributes and Economic Shocks: An Activity System Perspective Scholars in organizational disciplines have devoted increasing attention to the activity systems perspective of organizations, which conceives of firms as a web of interdependent activities. According to this view, managers must make central choices about the number and extent of interdependencies in a given activity system, which consequently influence performance outcomes under shifting environmental constraints and opportunities. To date, little to no empirical research has causally linked those activity system attributes to firm performance in experimental environmental settings. Furthermore, while environmental shocks have figured prominently in many studies as a key component of research design, little is known about the phenomena itself as a stand-alone concept in organizational literature. The purpose of this dissertation is to integrate the two research streams with systematic treatment of both environmental change and complexity attributes in organizations. Reuter Emmanuelle (Günter Müller-Stewens): Overcoming Cognitive Constraints to Strategic Adaptation: Exploring three perspectives Prior research uncovered that decision-makers face important cognitive constraints to strategically adapt to a discontinuous environment. With the purpose to further scholarly understanding of this managerial problem, this dissertation investigates how social influence mechanisms can support strategic decision-makers to overcome the cognitive constraints involved in strategic adaptation to discontinuous change. The dissertation has two overarching purposes: First, it seeks to develop theory on the dynamic processes through which decision-makers can overcome their cognitive constraints. Second, it develops theory on the particular roles of social influence mechanisms (social conflict, TMT and shareholder structures) from the organization’s internal and external context for shaping these dynamics. With this focus, a qualitative empirical study analyses incumbents' responses to the mounting international pressures on the Swiss banking secrecy. Scheef Christine (Günter Müller-Stewens): Essays on Top Management Teams and Chief Strategy Officers From an upper echelons perspective, it is central to study top management teams (TMTs) and their senior executives’ behavior to understand how and why organizations vary in their strategic choices and performance. While the body of knowledge about TMTs is already substantial, this dissertation shifts the focus of TMT research towards behavioral perspectives and identifies three shortcomings in the current TMT research, which warrant more research attention. Each article of this dissertation aims at advancing the limited knowledge in the following areas: (1) the TMT’s cognitive and social processes, (2) the TMT’s structure and particularly, senior executives’ varying power in strategic decisionmaking, and (3) the Chief Strategy Officer’s (CSO’s) behavior. Overall, this dissertation advances research of TMTs and CSOs from a behavioral perspective. It significantly helps to bring more realistic assumptions about humans’ cognition and social interactions to the TMT literature and considerably increases the explanatory power of TMTs’ and senior executives’ characteristics. Finally, this dissertation provides novel means to assist CEOs and boards of directors in steering TMT processes and designing the role of the CSO within the TMT more thoughtfully. Schlenzig Thomas (Günter Müller-Stewens): A Legitimacy Perspective on the Corporate Strategy The corporate strategy function (strategy function) is a globally used device in large organizations. It is a collective of full-time strategy professionals with the purpose to assist strategy-making. In its assisting role, the strategy function is to enable organizational actors to make strategy. However, this will only work, if the strategy function is perceived as legitimate by the organization. Using a mixed methods approach, this thesis makes the practice through that the strategy function can create legitimacy measurable in a questionnaire to assess legitimacy as an outcome variable. Implications for research and practice are: First, conceptualizing the practice shows what the function should do in order to enable strategy-making. Second, the practice delivers insights into how legitimacy is actually created. Third, the extent of legitimacy as an outcome may depict an intermediate measure to the performance of the strategy function. Forth, a strategy function can measure its legitimacy and benchmark it. 2014 Boppel Michael (Christoph Lechner): Strategic Initiative Portfolios. Theory and Empirical Evidence This dissertation explores strategic initiative portfolios. Strategic initiative portfolios emerge since large contemporary corporations usually engage in multiple strategic initiatives as key vehicles of strategic renewal. Although significant and nontrivial performance effects may arise from portfolio effects that go beyond the impact of individual initiatives, prior literature has largely focused on single strategic initiatives. This dissertation draws attention to the portfolio level of analysis. Specifically, it investigates antecedents, processes, and outcomes of various aspects of strategic initiative portfolios by building on literature on complexity and coordination. First, it examines strategic initiative portfolios’ impact on performance in large, multiunit firms. It suggests that the management of several portfolio design principles have an effect that exceeds the cumulative effects of single initiatives. Second, this dissertation sheds light on corporate programs as an important organizational structure to coordinate multiple strategic initiatives. A unique, longitudinal data set in the European financial services industry from 2000 to 2009 serves as the basis for the empirical analyses. Johannes Luger (Peter Gomez): A Longitudinal Perspective on Organizational Ambidexterity This dissertation takes a longitudinal perspective on organizational ambidexterity, that is, firms’ ability to balance exploration and exploitation. In particular, the dissertation consists of five papers, each of which stresses time’s role in ambidexterity from a different perspective. For example, Paper 1 investigates how firms’ exploration-exploitation balance changes over time, whereas Paper 4 draws a comparison between the simultaneous and sequential pursuit of exploration and exploitation. The papers adopt different levels of analysis (firm, project, and individual-level) and apply distinct methodologies (qualitative and quantitative). Important implications include the introduction of a novel concept—dynamic ambidexterity—which provides a longitudinal perspective on how firms adjust their simultaneous exploration-exploitation balance over time. Johannes was awarded with the prestigious best Ph.D. Award by the Strategic Management Society twice in 2011 and 2012. Anja Schuster (Björn Ambos): From a Distance: Essays on the Concept of Psychic Distance in International Management Psychic distance constitutes a fascinating concept which is central to research in international management. It expresses the extent to which we feel close or similar to foreign nations and their people, it measures how different we are from other countries or how different we perceive us to be. Psychic distance hinders us to collaborate, communicate or trade with foreigners as we would with compatriots. It is an ambiguous notion that has featured the literature for a long time. Despite the great amount of interest it has sparked so far, the concept still possesses great untapped potential. In this dissertation, the author attends to several of the most pressing issues related to psychic distance. Dana Zumr (Markus Schwaninger): Strengthening the organizational identity – Suggestions for identity management of cooperatives The dissertation investigates the processes that influence and strengthen organizational identity. The dissertation is based on a single case study of the “Cooperative Wogeno [Wohngenossenschaft = housing cooperative] Zurich - the housing cooperative of self-managed housing communities.” Organizational identity seeks an answer to the question: “Who are we as an organization?” The result is a model for the identity management of a cooperative. Organization and identity are understood as the result of a variety of social construction processes. The focus is on social relationships, which need to be continuously nurtured. Relationship-oriented leadership is about trusting the dynamic units within the organization that are capable of self-development and is based on the principle of multiple leadership, according to which leadership competencies are widespread throughout the organization. The democratically elected management is tasked with setting energies free, allowing members to express their own initiatives, to function as interpreters and providers of meaning, as well as possibly uniting emerging differences in the sense of win-win solutions. 2013 Deepali Sinha (Markus Schwaninger): Diffusion, Obsolescence and Disposal of End-of-Life Consumer Durables: Models for Forecasting Waste Flows Consumer durables have become ever more accessible, affordable and available worldwide. The corollary to this widespread diffusion is more products reaching the waste stream. The dissertation tackles the question of estimation and forecasting of end-of-life consumer durables. Through three papers, the research identifies the advantages and limitations of two modeling approaches and suggests improvements to enable better forecasts and provide insights into consumer disposal behavior. In the first paper, a societal stock and flow model is presented which includes multiple-unit diffusion as also technological substitution. In the second, a reverse diffusion model is presented and empirically validated. And finally, in the third paper both these modeling approaches are compared and critiqued. Camillo Freiherr von Müller (Peter Gomez): Public Value und Finanzinstitutionen In my dissertation I discuss the societal nature (public value) of financial institutions. The dissertation is composed of six independent papers that can be read as complementary elements. The core argument of the dissertation rests on empirical observations: In chapter 3 I show how managers of a leading stock exchange company legitimize their firm in societal terms by referring to its functional qualities. Chapter 4 offers a quantitative view on how investors evaluate societal aspects of financial institutions through the example of subnational bond markets in Germany. The two chapters are preceded by discussions on normative aspects of management and their historic foundations while the last two chapters of the dissertation discuss managerial and regulatory consequences that follow from the societal nature of capital allocating financial institutions such as banks and (electronic) financial markets. Florian Überbacher (Claus D. Jacobs): Exploring Legitimation Strategies of New Ventures This dissertation furthers scholarly understanding of the role of legitimacy for new ventures – a topic of longstanding interest to scholars in the fields of research on organization theory and strategy, entrepreneurship, and sociology. New ventures comprise independent as well as corporate ventures in their first years of existence. The judgment of a new venture’s legitimacy – that is, of its appropriateness, acceptability, and/or desirability – among the venture’s external audiences (including such resource-holders as investors, consumers, governmental authorities, or prospective employees and partners) serves as central asset for a new venture to acquire the resources it desperately requires for growth, survival and persistence in the market it entered. Martin Rajes (Christoph Lechner): A Behavioral Theory of Strategic Renewal: the Impact of Performance Feedback and Organizational learning on Strategic Renewal Actions The dissertation complements previous research on the behavioral theory of the firm and strategic renewal by analyzing the effects of performance feedback and momentum on strategic renewal. I develop theoretical hypotheses which suggest how performance feedback and organizational learning reflected by momentum affect the rate of strategic renewal actions. Thereby, I consider different dimensions of strategic renewal in terms of content (explorative vs. exploitative actions) and context (external vs. internal actions). I test these predictions together with further hypotheses related to slack, widening-sequence-of-search, and momentum. The analytical method is event-history analysis based on data from over 550 actions of a global insurance firm between 1997 and 2010. Findings of the study are discussed together with its contributions, limitations and possible directions for future research. Daniel Albert (Christoph Lechner): >Strategic Renewal of Activity Systems: An Interdependency Perspective A firm’s strategy can be described as a system of interdependent activity choices. Interdependencies among activity choices influence firms’ ability to undergo continuous strategic renewal. I revisit the extant literature on activity systems and strategic renewal with a particular focus on interdependency to address these gaps. I explore the constituting elements of an activity system and identify their influence on the overall interdependency design. The broader theoretical framework of my dissertation attempts to reconcile paradox findings of the relationship between interdependency and strategic renewal. Analyzing the European banking industry between the years 2000 and 2011 further supports the central claim of this thesis that interdependencies can enable and inhibit strategic renewal dependent upon the distribution of interdependencies and the set of rules they follow. Luzia Stähli (Günter Müller-Stewens): Strategic Effectiveness: How Corporate – Strategists Create Value Despite the prevalence of strategy departments in large and most medium-sized firms, there is limited empirical evidence with regard to their usefulness. The strategy department, as a typical staff function, is subject to challenges about the value it supposedly adds to the organization. Thus, strategists need to legitimize their existence by proving their value to the firm. The questions of what constitutes the department’s effective contribution and how it can be realized and measured, however, remain largely unexplored. This dissertation addresses these gaps. As the nature of the strategy department’s effectiveness remains underspecified, it first inducts a mid-range theory on strategists’ effective value contribution from an in-depth single case study. How strategists create value for the firm is described and explained by utilizing the strategy department’s constituencies as respondents to their effectiveness evaluation and adopting an activity theoretical lens. Sven Kunisch (Günter Müller-Stewens): A Dynamic Perspecive on the Strategic Apex: Antecedents, Processes and Outcomes of Changes at Corporate Headquarters This Ph.D. thesis thus investigates changes at the CHQ. It comprises four core chapters, each of which is a self-contained study: The first study reviews existing knowledge pertaining to CHQ change. Two studies analyze specific phenomena based on distinct theoretical lenses. While one study investigates CEO successions as an antecedent to CHQ change from an upper echelons perspective, the other researches the antecedents and the outcomes of CHQ change, using the organizational contingency theory. The fourth study examines the dynamics of corporate functions. Although they address distinct aspects of CHQ change, these chapters are closely related. This Ph.D. thesis makes several contributions to theory and practice. Mainly, the thesis takes a dynamic perspective of the CHQ, thereby adding to corporate strategy literature. Moreover, the findings inform practicing managers, board of directors, and those involved in advising large firms such as strategy consultants. 2012 Elisabeth Bauer (Markus Schwaninger): Zwischen Anpassung und Widerstand: Strategische Verhaltensmuster von privaten Organisationen in institutionell hoch entwickeltem Umfeld: eine vergleichende Fallstudie Private Organisationen in institutionell hoch entwickeltem Umfeld stehen vor der strategischen Herausforderung, sich trotz Anpassungsdruck und Ressourcenabhängigkeit den notwendigen Entscheidungsspielraum zu sichern, um den angestrebten Nutzen schaffen zu können. Nach wie vor ist jedoch unklar, wie sie die erwähnte Herausforderung in der Praxis meistern. Die vorliegende Dissertation nimmt sich der Forschungslücke im Feld der politischen Strategien an und leistet einen Beitrag zum besseren Verständnis der strategischen Verhaltensmuster. Bei der Nutzenschaffung spielen die organisationalen Motive Legitimität und Autonomie eine zentrale Rolle. Deshalb werden im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Fallstudie die Wechselwirkungen zwischen dem Streben nach Legitimität und Autonomie einerseits und der Nutzenschaffung andererseits untersucht. Astrid Erbsen (Markus Schwaninger): Krankheit im Zentrum – Gestaltung von krankheitsorientierten Spitalstrukturen aus kybernetisch-konstruktivistischer Sicht Die Arbeit entwickelt ein Strukturmodell von krankheitsorientierten Zentren an Universitätsspitälern. Das Modell basiert auf einer kybernetisch-konstruktivistischen Sichtweise sowie den Erkenntnissen aus umfangreichen Einzelfallstudien in Eusoma-akkreditierten universitären Brustzentren. Das Modell zeigt, welche Strukturen ein idealtypisches Zentrum zum Zweck der optimalen Patientenversorgung aufweisen sollte, sowie welches die wesentlichen Herausforderungen im Veränderungsprozess sind. Hinsichtlich der Soll-Strukturen sind für ein kompatibles Verständnis von der gemeinsamen Arbeit die Rollen, Prozesse, Methoden und Konventionen der Interaktion insichtlich aller Managementfunktionen in einem Zentrum festzulegen und zu leben. Wesentliche Herausforderungen im Veränderungsprozess sind der Wandel des ärztlichen Professionsverständnisses sowie die Neuordnung der ärztlichen Zeiteinteilung. Stefan N. Groesser (Markus Schwaninger): Co-evolution of standards in innovation systems: the dynamics of voluntary and legal standards Mitigating climate change is one of the most profound challenges facing humankind. In industrialized countries, the residential housing sector produces roughly one-fourth of the greenhouse gas emissions. One solution to reduce these emissions is the availability of building codes that require high levels of energy efficiency. Given the current scientific knowledge, more research is needed to gain a proper systemic understanding of the underlying socio-economic system. Such an understanding is crucial for developing high energy-efficiency standards. This dissertation creates a feedback-rich simulation model for analyzing the effects of administrative policies on energy demand, on energy efficiency, and on reductions in the greenhouse gas emissions. The dynamic model can contribute substantially to the discourse on energy policies and guide effective administrative interventions. Matthias Otto Müller (Markus Schwaninger): How can the Diffusion of Energy-Efficient Renovations of Buildings be Accelerated? In my doctoral thesis, I analyzed how the diffusion of energy-efficient renovations of buildings might be accelerated, so that Switzerland's CO2 emissions are reduced. In particular, I analyzed the context, within which the diffusion of energy-efficient renovations takes place. I developed a simulation model of Switzerland’s stock of buildings. I described the main actors in the societal problem situation and I described the main causal processes driving the diffusion process. Eventually, I synthesized these four analytical perspectives into a larger System Dynamics model of the diffusion process and used it to identify interventions for public policy. Key results include two regulations that would decarbonize the stock of buildings by 2050 and an outline of a business model in support of building owners without professional know-how. Nicole A. Rosenkranz (Peter Gomez): Connecting the Dots: Studies on Boundary-spanning Ambidexterity at the Individual, Project, Firm, and Alliance Level My research examines a firm’s innovation system, defined as the set of external partners that a firm engages with in the development of technological innovation. To understand the dynamics and performance effects of this system, I analyze the multi-level nature of learning mechanisms (individual, project, firm and alliance level) to determine, what direct implications the integration of external knowledge sources hold for the management of innovations, specifically exploitation and exploration. My dissertation addresses this field of research through a theory-building paper, a multiple-case study in technology driven industries, a longitudinal panel data analysis in the biopharmaceutical industry, and a review article on ambidexterity in alliance settings. Markus Schimmer (Günter Müller-Stewens): Essays on Competitive Dynamics: Strategic Groups, Competitive Moves, and Performance within the Global Insurance Industry Markus’ dissertation extends extant knowledge about the causes and consequences of interfirm rivalry. It consists of three empirical studies that relate to scholarly discussions central to competitive dynamics research. Specifically, the dissertation challenges existing answers to the following fundamental questions: (1) When and why do firms change their strategic positioning? (2) How do market shocks impact the mechanisms governing interfirm rivalry? (3) How do different types of relationships between competitive moves impact the competitive moves’ performance implications? Answering these questions sets the dissertation’s scope and makes it revisit research on strategic group dynamics, patterns of competitive actions and responses, and work on the performance implications of competitive actions sequences. Lukas Schmid (Markus Schwaninger): Erfolgsdynamik – Ein Konzept für die Erstellung systemdynamischer Modelle zur Entscheidungsunterstützung im strategischen Management Erfolgreiches unternehmerisches Handeln beruht auf einer umfassenden Berücksichtigung der relevanten Ursache-Wirkungsbeziehungen. Systemdynamische Modelle bilden dabei im Zusammenspiel mit den mentalen Modellen der Entscheidungsträger und als Ergänzung zu den statischen Instrumenten der Unternehmensführung eine wertvolle Unterstützung. Um solche Simulationsmodelle insbesondere für kleinere und mittlere Unternehmen zugänglich zu machen, wurde auf Basis von vier Fallstudien ein praxisorientierte Konzept entwickelt. Dieses beschreibt, wie im Modellierungsprozess von der Strukturierung der mentalen Modelle über die quantitative Modellbildung bis zur Analyse von Szenarien vorzugehen ist. Im Zentrum des Konzepts stehen generische Modellbausteine, die zu einer Basisstruktur zusammengesetzt wurden, um den Einstieg in die Modellierung zu erleichtern und zu beschleunigen. Rebekka Skubinn (-Sputtek) (Steven Floyd): Opening the Black Box Rebekka Skubinn sheds light upon the question of how the personality and emotional traits of executives influence their decision making and leadership behavior. While recent strategic management research has started to recognize the relevance of an executive's personality traits as antecedents of organizational outcomes, this stream has called for a more fine-grained clarification of the psychological processes underlying executive decision making. In order to contribute to the understanding of these processes, a holistic model integrating the role of an expedient set of personality variables and anger in executive’s decision making comprehensiveness as well as authenticity of transformational leadership is developed. Carola Wolf (Steven W. Floyd): The influence of strategic planning on middle manager’s role in strategy This thesis explores the role of middle managers in strategic planning. Despite the acknowledged role of middle managers as crucial strategic thinkers for strategic advancement and organizational development, research has still not fully explored how middle managers can be supported by top management and organizational structures such as planning processes in order that they might live up to their strategic role. Therefore, this thesis sheds light on the following questions: How do strategic planning processes empower middle managers and how is this empowerment sustained over time? 2011 Eric Schulze: Der Beitrag zum Gemeinwohl: Public Values definieren und legitimieren – eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des Goethe-Instituts e.V. (Peter Gomez) Welche Einfluss hat die Verwaltung neben einer ordentlichen Ausführung (Effizienz) auch auf die Art der Wertschöpfung (Effektivität), die sie erbringt?“ Aus der Perspektive des Public Value-Ansatzes wird sich diesem Grenzgebiet zwischen managerieller und politischer Rationalität im öffentlichen Sektor angenähert. Anhand eines Fallstudienansatzes wird die Forschungsfrage untersucht: Wie können Organisationen im Öffentlichen Sektor ihre Wertschöpfung (Ziel-Public Values) definieren und legitimieren? Die Untersuchung legt dar, dass die politische Zielvorgabe der jeweiligen Organisation zwangsläufig Freiheitsgrade bei der Ausgestaltung des Auftrags lässt, die in der Verwaltung traditionell mit dem Konstrukt der Ermessensentscheidung im Sinne des Gemeinwohls geschlossen werden. Der geschickte Einbezug gesellschaftlicher Unterstützung hilft der politischen Legitimation der Veränderungen.» Frank Haupenthal: Steuerung Strategischer Konzernprogramme (Günter Müller-Stewens) Strategische Programme sind ein wichtiges Instrument des Corporate Managements. Obwohl sie eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit erfahren, weiß man nur sehr wenig über deren Steuerung und „Wirksam werden“. In einer empirischen Studie über die strategischen Konzernprogramme eines führenden Luftfahrtunternehmens wird untersucht, wie die Topmanager in der Zentrale von Mehrgeschäftsunternehmen über die Steuerung strategischer Programme durch formelle Managementkontrollsysteme tatsächlich Mehrwert auf der Unternehmensebene schaffen. Gestützt auf den Levers of Control-Bezugsrahmen von Robert Simons wird gezeigt, welche unterschiedlichen Rollen das Topmanagement einnimmt und sowohl Statik als auch Dynamik der Prozesse, Strukturen und Werkzeuge aktiv beeinflusst. Die Ergebnisse belegen, dass – und wie – das integrative Steuern strategischer Programme zu einer dynamischen Fähigkeit der Unternehmenszentrale wird.» Veronika Lochbrunner: Patterns of Corporate Change: How Multi-Business Firms align Strategy and Structure (Günter Müller-Stewens) «Multi-business firms need to adjust their corporate strategy and structure to changing environments and consequently to each other. Strategy-structure fit is vital for corporate-level value creation and thus a multi-business firm’s legitimization and ultimately its survival. This study adopts a new approach based on a configurational perspective to analyze strategy and structural changes at the corporate level of diversified firms. It develops broad conceptualizations of corporate strategy and corporate structure and studies in a longitudinal and inductive manner how strategy-structure configurations change over time. Based on a qualitative content analysis of letters to shareholders from the annual reports of the German Dax30 firms for a ten-year period (2000-2009), this study describes and explains patterns of corporate-level strategy-structure change. The findings imply that it is critical that corporate managers do not view particular decisions for corporate change as isolated events, but instead view them as part of a long-term, coherent change pattern. This study proposes a typology of corporate change which suggests that corporate managers should choose a particular ideal type of corporate change pattern (jumper, runner or strider), and then follow it closely and consistently over a long period of time.» Daniel Broger: Structuration Theory and Organization Research (Markus Schwaninger) Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Public Sector: When Middle Managers Create Public Value (Peter Gomez) «Entrepreneurship is often considered one way for public sector organizations to better serve the public. But what are the drivers for entrepreneurship in such organizations? And does entrepreneurship really create value? To answer these questions, Fabian E. Diefenbach develops a research model based on a comprehensive review of the literatures on private sector corporate entrepreneurship, public entrepreneurship, and public value management. The empirical analyses identify five drivers of entrepreneurship and show a positive effect of entrepreneurship on value creation. This book concludes with a detailed discussion of the results and, importantly, their implications for public sector managers.» The dissertation was published: Gabler Research, ISBN 978-3-8349-3085-9. Florian Rehli: Governance of International Nongovernmental Organizations – Internal and External Challenges (Urs Jäger) This empirical dissertation investigates the governance of INGOs, offering new models on the governance of INGOs and information on how to effectively choose governance actors and institutions given particular internal and external challenges. On an individual level, employing actor-centered institutionalism, we find that a stable power relationship between board chairs and executive directors is characterized by the actors' equal capabilities and complementary preferences. Following resource dependency theory, we furthermore find that board nomination modes and stakeholder representation in INGOs largely depend on different sources of funding and the degree of volunteer involvement. Third, we describe how INGOs, to a large extent, design their boards rationally to acquire relevant expertise, networks, and legitimacy.» 2010 Nicola Gesing: Participation and Involvement across Multi-Partner Alliances: Implications for Benefit Appropriation (Christoph Lechner) «Why are some firms more successful in dealing with multi-partner alliances (MPAs) than other firms? This research question motivates the dissertation that explores the phenomenon of MPAs and investigates factors explaining firm performance heterogeneity in the context of MPAs. A focus is put on the factors of participation and involvement, as these two are guiding decision-making about partnering in MPAs. The results of the negative binomial regression analysis indicate that entering counter-cyclically to MPAs offers higher benefits to new entrants that enter cyclically. Another central finding is that the effectiveness of benefit appropriation from memberships in incumbent MPAs is inhibited by an additional activity in emerging MPAs. Complementing prior research, firm performance across MPAs was found to be contingent on the inter-relationship between the respective MPAs. The empirical analysis builds on a unique dataset of firms in the wireless broadband industry.» Florian Hotz: Organizational Ambidexterity: A Multi-Level Perspective on Organizational Alignment (Peter Gomez) «Ambidexterität ist die Fähigkeit eines Unternehmens, bestehende Potenziale zu nutzen und gleichzeitig neuartige Möglichkeiten zu erschliessen. Florian Hotz erstellte in seiner Dissertation ein umfassendes Modell zur Identifikation von Ambidexterität und deren Auswirkungen. Dazu untersuchte er die unternehmerischen Entscheidungen in über 75 europäischen Versicherungsunternehmen über einen Zeitraum von 10 Jahren. Die Studie zeigt, dass organisationale Anpassungsmuster zugunsten organisationaler Ambidexterität breite Anwendung finden. Sie werden komplementär angewandt, um sich wandelnden Umweltbedingungen anzupassen. Stark ambidextre Unternehmen re-orchestrieren ihre Ressourcen dabei häufiger als ihre einseitig ausgerichteten Konkurrenten. Florian Hotz regt deshalb an, Ambidexterität künftig weniger als statische Kompetenz sondern vielmehr als dynamische Anpassungsfähigkeit zu betrachten.» Torsten Kahlert: Portolio Restructuring: A Decision-Making Perspective (Günter Müller-Stewens) Petra Kroflin: - Jürgen Merz: Integration in pluralistischen Organisationen – die Entwicklung von gemeinschaftlicher Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit in einem Krankenhaus (Johannes Rüegg-Stürm) «Im Kontext zunehmender Ausdifferenzierung stellt sich für pluralistische Organisationen wie Krankenhäuser die Herausforderung, die Entscheidungs- und Handlungsfähigkeit auf Ebene der Gesamtführung zu entwickeln und zu stabilisieren. Im Zuge einer Einzelfallstudie wurde im Rahmen einer engen Kooperation mit einem Krankenhaus der Maximalversorgung dieser Frage nachgespürt. Die umfassenden empirischen Daten zeigen, welche unterschiedlichen Interaktionsmuster sich zwischen den Akteuren und Aktionen entfalten und wie es durch die Veränderung bestehender Muster gelingt, das eigene Organisieren und Führen in den Blick zu nehmen und die mit der Ausdifferenzierung verbundenen Folgen konstruktiv zu bearbeiten. Elf abgeleitete Thesen ermöglichen letztlich den Praktikern, ihren Alltag zu reflektieren und zeigen, wie über den Aufbau von Eigenbeobachtungs-/ Reflexionsplattformen eine Wiedereinführung der Organisation in die Organisation gelingen kann.» Lars Stein: Managementpraktiken unternehmerischer Nachhaltigkeit. Wie Unternehmen ihren Beitrag zu einer lebenswerten Welt gestalten (Johannes Rüegg) «Fast jede Organisation behauptet von sich, irgendwie nachhaltig zu sein. Markt, Politik und Öffentlichkeit verlangen dies so. Doch was heisst Nachhaltigkeit? Welche Implikationen ergeben sich daraus für Führung und Organisation? Diesen Fragen geht die Arbeit nach. Mittels teilnehmender Beobachtung untersucht Lars Stein, wie Organisationen, die sich zum Ziel gesetzt haben, einen positiven Beitrag für Gesellschaft und Umwelt zu leisten, diesen Anspruch in ihrem alltäglichen Managementhandeln einlösen. Er zeichnet Widersprüche, scheinbar unüberwindbare Sachzwänge und Ungewissheiten nach und zeigt mit zahlreichen Originalzitaten auf, wie das Management in solchen Organisationen die Herausforderungen der Nachhaltigkeit bewältigt.» erschienen bei: Carl-Auer Verlag, ISBN 978-3-89670-938-7 Kai Römmelt: Creating Value with Strategic Management in Buyouts in Dynamic Markets - Empirical Study on the Management of Buyouts (Markus Schwaninger) «Combining different theoretical perspectives as well as empirical insights, this dissertation develops distinct strategic management approaches in buyouts. In this study, the applications of operational design, management style and strategy process as well as the created value are observed. This dissertation addresses the research question of how strategic management applied by buyout firms influences value creation in the holding phase of buyouts. This question was addressed with a multi-case study of buyouts to observe the management approaches of buyout firms in buyouts and the created value. It could be shown that there is no standard approach and philosophy applied by all buyout firms. It was also shown that there does not seem to be a direct link between an applied tool and value creation; rather, it seems to be a combination of the state of the targeted company, the value creation concept, the capabilities of the buyout firm, and the selected management approach which are the key drivers for value creation in a buyout.» Alexander Zimmermann: Organizational Ambidexterity: How to Plan, Design, and Manage Exploratory Initiatives in Incumbent Firms. (Peter Gomez) How can managers design organizations for profitable growth? Prior research has identified organizational ambidexterity–a firm’s ability to simultaneously exploit its current capabilities (to improve profitability) and to explore new capability domains (to secure growth)–as key for sustainable success. However, exploitation and exploration have contradictory requirements with regard to a firm's organizational design. Incumbent firms tend to design mechanistic organizational structures to exploit their position in competitive markets. However, these structures hinder them from identifying and exploring new opportunities when the competitive landscape changes. In order to solve this paradox, the three articles in this dissertation aim at identifying organizational mechanisms to plan, design, and manage exploratory initiatives without jeopardizing exploitative mainstream operations.